History of Mizoram

The origin of the Mizos, like that of many other tribes in northeastern India, is a mystery. He was generally accepted as part of a large wave of Mongolian migration from China and then moved to India where he lives today.
The Mizos may have come from Shinlung or Chhinlungsan on the banks of the Yalung River in China. They first settled in Shan State and then moved to the Kabaw Valley to Khampat and then the Chin Hills in the mid-16th century.

The first Mizos to migrate to India were known as Kukis, the second group of immigrants were called New Kukis. The Lushai were the last of the Mizo tribes to migrate to India. The history of Mizo in the 18th and 19th centuries is marked by many instances of tribal raids and retaliatory expeditions. Mizo Hills was officially declared part of British India by proclamation in 1895. The northern and southern hills were united in 1898 to form the Lushai Hills district with Aizawl as its seat.

The process of consolidation of British administration in the tribal-dominated area of ​​Assam began in 1919 when the Lushai Hills, along with some other hilly districts, were declared a Reverse Tract under the Government of India Act. Assam’s tribal districts, including the Lushai Hills, were declared restricted areas in 1935.

During British rule, a political awakening was taking shape among the Mizos in the Lushai Hills. The first political party, the Mizo Common People’s Union, was formed on April 9, 1946. The party was later renamed the Mizo Union. As Independence Day approached, the Constituent Assembly of India set up an Advisory Committee to deal with issues related to minorities and tribes. A sub-committee was formed, chaired by Gopinath Bordoloi, to advise the Constituent Assembly on tribal affairs in the Northeast. The Mizo Union introduced a resolution from this subcommittee calling for the inclusion of all Mizo-inhabited areas adjacent to the Lushai Hills. However, a new party called United Mizo Freedom (UMFO) emerged to demand that Lushai Hills join Burma after independence.

At the suggestion of the Bordoloi subcommittee, the government accepted a degree of autonomy and enshrined it in Schedule Six of the Constitution. The Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council was established in 1952, followed by the formation of these bodies which led to the abolition of chiefdom in Mizo society.

However, autonomy only partially fulfilled the aspirations of the Mizos. Representatives of the District Council and the Union of Mizo asked the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1954 to incorporate the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and Manipur into its District Council in Assam.

The Northeastern tribal leaders were extremely dissatisfied with the SRC’s recommendations: they met in Aizawl in 1955 and formed a new political party, the East India Union (EITU), and demanded a separate state encompassing all of Assam’s mountain districts. . The Mizo Union split and the breakaway faction joined the EITU. At this time, the UMFO also joined the EITU, and after the Ministry of Chuliha understood Hill’s problems, the EITU’s request for a separate Hill status was held in abeyance.

 

FACTS AND LEGEND :

But folklore has an interesting story to tell. According to legend, the Mizos emerged from beneath a large capping rock known as Chhinlung. Two people from the Ralte clan, known for their talkative nature, started talking loudly as they left the region. They made a loud noise like a god leg, called Pathian by the Mizos, to raise their hands in disgust and say stop. Feeling that too many people had already been let out, he closed the door with the stone.

History often differs from legends. But the story of the Mizos emerging from the underworld through a rocky opening is now part of the Mizo fable. However, Chhinlung is considered by some to be the Chinese city of Sinlung or Chinlingsang, which is close to the Sino-Burmese border. The Mizos have songs and stories about the glory of the ancient Chhinlung civilization that have been passed down from one generation to the next of powerful people.

To what extent the story is true is difficult to say. However, it is possible that the Mizos originated from Sinlung or Chinlungsan on the banks of the Yalung River in China. According to K.S. Latourette existed in 210 BC. BC political upheavals in China. when dynastic rule was abolished and the entire empire came under a single administrative system. Rebellions broke out and chaos reigned throughout the Chinese state. That the Mizos left China as part of one of those migration waves. Whatever the case, it seems likely that circumstances caused the Mizos to move from China to Burma and then to India. They first settled in Shan State after overcoming resistance from the indigenous people. They then changed settlements several times, moving from Shan State to the Kabaw Valley, Khampat and the Chin Hills of Burma. They finally began crossing the Tiau River into India in the mid-16th century.

The Shan were already firmly established in their state when the Mizos arrived there from Chhinlung around the 5th century. The Shan did not welcome the newcomers, but they could not expel the Mizos. The Mizos lived happily in Shan State for about 300 years before moving to the Kabaw Valley around the 8th century.

In the Kabaw Valley, Mizos had the opportunity to freely interact with the local Burmese. The two cultures met and the two tribes influenced each other in terms of clothing, customs, music and sports. According to some, the Mizos learned the art of farming from the Burmese in Kabaw. Many of their farming implements bore the prefix Kawl, which was the name the Mizos gave to the Burmese.

Khampat (now in Myanmar) is known to have been the next Mizo settlement. The area that the Mizos claimed as their oldest city was surrounded by an earthen wall and divided into several parts. The ruler’s residence was located in the central block called Nan Yar (palace site). The construction of the city shows that the Mizos had already acquired considerable architectural skill. It is said that they planted a banyan tree in Nan Yar before leaving Khampat as a sign that they built the city.

The Mizos settled in the Chin Hills on the India-Burmese border in the early 14th century. They built villages and called them by their clan names, such as Seipui, Saihmun, and Bochung. The hill and difficult terrain of Chin Hills stood in the way of building another central community like Khampat. The villages were so scattered that it was not always possible for the different Mizo clans to keep in touch with each other.

 

PLACE OF INTEREST :

There are many places in Mizoram that can be described as ‘must see’ for sports tourism, anyone who wants to see something more than the traditional sports tourism, anyone interested in learning about local culture and traditions is recommended / You are expected to do/visit some of the historical monuments and legendary caves of Mizoram scattered across the state. Traveling in Mizoram, like any other mountainous region, is painful and sometimes not very dangerous, but it has its own rewards.

Blue Mountain: The highest peak in Mizoram, Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) is located in Chhimtuipui District overlooking the bend of Koldyne River (Chhimtuipui) near the state border with Myanmar. The 2,157-meter peak surrounded by bamboo forests at the top, where there is a flat land of about 200 hectares, offers a great view of the high hills and the winding hilly valleys. The surrounding forests are home to several beautiful and rare species of flora and fauna.

 

Pukzing Cave: The largest cave in Mizoram is located in Pukzing Village near Marpara in Aizawl (Mamit) District. According to legend, the cave was dug out of the hills with the help of a pitchfork by a very strong man named Mualzavata.

Milu Puk: In the Mizo language, Puk means cave. Near the village of Mamte, more than 100km from the town of Lunglei, Milu Puk, a large cave, was discovered many years ago to contain piles of human skeletons.

Lamsial Puk: The cave near Farkawn village in Aizawl District (Champhai) is a silent testimony of a battle between two neighboring villages in which many lost their lives. It is said that the corpses of Lamsial village fighters were kept in the cave.

Kungawrhi Puk – Another cave in Aizawl District, it is located on a hill between the villages of Farkawn and Vaphai. According to folk tales, a beautiful young woman named Kungawrhi was kidnapped by evil spirits and imprisoned in the abandoned cave while on her way to her husband’s village. However, Kungawrhi was later rescued from the spirit prison by her husband.

Sibuta Lung – This memorial stone was erected by a tribal chief about three hundred years ago and bears his name. The memorial tells a story of abandoned love and revenge. After being rejected by a girl he was madly in love with, Sibuta became furious to seek revenge and decided to erect a monument to himself showing a mad mind. A huge rock flooded with the blood of three people sacrificed by Sibuta was transported 10 km from the Tlawng River. Darlalpuii, a beautiful young woman, was crushed alive in a pit dug for the construction of the mausoleum. The memorial was erected over Darlai, who lost his life under the weight of the stone.

Phulpui Tomb – A tale of love and tragedy also hangs in this tomb in Phulpui Village of Aizawl District. Tualvungi, a raving beauty in her day, was married to Zawlpala, chief of the Phulpui. Later, circumstances forced her to marry Phuntia, the chief of another village. But Tualvungi could not forget his first love. He came to Phulpui years after Zawlpala’s death with a dug well next to his grave and convinced an old woman to kill and bury there.

Chhingpuii Monument: Built to commemorate a young girl named Chhingpuii who was very beautiful, it is located between Baktawng and Chhingchhip Villages on Aizawl-Lunglei Road. Chhingpuii, born into an aristocratic family, chose Kaptluanga as her husband from among her many suitors. But their happiness was short-lived, as war broke out afterwards. Chhingpuii was kidnapped and killed. Kaptluanga, overcome with grief, took his own life. The stone memorial commemorates the legendary love story of Chhingpuii and Kaptluanga.

Mangkhai Lung: A large memorial stone erected in Champhai some three hundred years ago to commemorate a well-known Ralte chief, Mangkhaia.

Buddha Image: An engraved image of the Lord Buddha with dancing girls on either side was found at a site near the village of Mualcheng, about 50 km from the city of Lunglei. The site also has another stone slab engraved with some human footprints and some implements like spearhead and dao. The area is close to the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which came under Buddhist influence a few centuries ago. Some visiting Buddhists from the Hill Tracts are said to have been responsible for the Buddha engraving.

 

Suangpuilawn Inscriptions: A stone slab by a stream in Suangpuilawn village, Aizawl District, with strange inscriptions on it. The inscription has yet to be deciphered. However, it is believed that the inscriptions were made by some people who lived in the area in ancient times.

Thangliana Lung: Captian T.H.Lewin was one of the first Englishmen to arrive in Mizoram. The Chittagong Hills Tracts District Commissioner, who came to Mizoram via Demagiri (Tlabung) in 1865, became so popular with the local tribesmen that they named him Thangliana, meaning ‘very famous’, as a mark of respect. He lived among the Mizo for nine years and was the author of the first Lushai book. His memorial stone in Demagiri remains a testament to the extent of his popularity with the Mizos.

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